Responsibility of water supply in Nigeria is shared between three levels of government – federal, state and local. The federal government is in charge of water resources management; state governments have the primary responsibility for urban water supply; and local governments together with communities are responsible for rural water supply. The responsibility for sanitation is not clearly defined.
Water supply service quality and cost recovery are low. Water tariffs are low and many water users do not pay their bills. Service providers thus rely mostly on occasional subsidies to cover their operating costs. Access In 2015, 67% of the total population had access to "at least basic water supply". This was 82% of the urban population and 54% of the rural population. In 2015, around 60 million people lacked access to "at least basic" water. As for sanitation, only 33% of the total population had access to "at least basic" sanitation. This was 39% of the urban population and 27% of the rural population. Approximately 122 million people still lacked access to "at least basic" sanitation. In urban areas, access to standpipes substituted to a large extent to piped water access.
Adequate sanitation is typically in the form of septic tanks, as there is no central sewerage system, except for Abuja and some areas of Lagos. A 2006 study estimated that only 1% of Lagos households were connected to sewers. Lagos has four wastewater treatment plants which have been rehabilitated around 2010. As of 2011, the state planned to build ten new "mega wastewater treatment plants" over the next five years with the help of private investors. These have not yet been completed.
The statistics on access to water and sanitation are conflicting, due to divergent definitions, indicators and methodologies applied by different agencies. There is hardly any sector monitoring. According to a report published by Amnesty International in September, there oil company Shell and government of Rivers State, in southern Nigeria are not doing enough to provide clean water in Ogale, an area outside of the state capital. The right to drink clean water is long violated in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Residents are either forced to buy water at unaffordable prices or drink from wells contaminated with benzene.Download Full Details